Endnotes

1. Introduction: What Makes Food and Climate Change a Compelling Topic for Ecological Education?

1See numerous sources in References. Three that were written with teachers and students in mind are Charles Fletcher, Climate Change: What the Science Tells Us (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013); Climate Change, one of a series of Global Systems Science resources for high school students by the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California, Berkeley, http://www.globalsystemsscience.org/studentbooks/cc; and a downloadable food system curriculum from the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future that includes a section on climate, FoodSpan: Teaching the Food System from Farm to Fork, http://www.foodspanlearning.org/.
2Scientific American, “Why Climate Skeptics Are Wrong” (originally published in December 2015 with the title “Consilience and Consensus”), https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-climate-skeptics-are-wrong/.
3Center for Food Safety’s Soil Solutions program, https://soilsolution.org/; the California Climate and Agriculture Network, http://calclimateag.org/; the Climate Food and Farming Research Network, https://ccafs.cgiar.org/climate-food-and-farming-network-cliff#.WJKFNhB3TfY.
4 In a peer-reviewed paper published in 2012, Sonja J. Vermeulen, Bruce M. Campbell, and John S. Ingram estimate that up to 29% of greenhouse gas emissions are related to the food system. See Sonja J. Vermeulen, Bruce M. Campbell, and John S. Ingram, “Climate Change and Food Systems,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37:195–222 (November, 2012), https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-environ-020411-130608. See also Anna Lappé, Diet for a Hot Planet (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010), p. 11.
5 The list of impacts that climate disruptions can have—and are already having—is long. To name just a few of the predicted effects: damage to food production from extreme weather (droughts, floods, heat waves, heavy rains, unseasonable frosts); proliferation of pathogens, parasites, and weeds; reduction of optimal conditions for reproductive development; water scarcity + longer growing seasons leading to increasing demand for water; alteration of pollinator activity; reduction of winter chill hours needed for proper setting of fruits and nuts; rising temperatures requiring more refrigeration, which causes emission of more greenhouse gases, which raises temperatures; loss of cropland; interruption of food distribution infrastructure; loss of nutritional value of food crops; increase in wildfires; increased erosion; decreased biodiversity; decrease in nutritional value of crops; loss of livelihoods for agricultural workers; crop shortages + volatility in retail food prices + lost employment leading to more poverty and more malnutrition (an Oxfam America report’s estimate: 25 million more malnourished children and 50 million more hungry people by 2050).
6“Applying Ecological Principles,” Center for Ecoliteracy website, https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/applying-ecological-principles.
7NGSS Lead States, Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013), https://www.nextgenscience.org/sites/default/files/Appendix%20G%20-%20Crosscutting%20Concepts%20FINAL%20edited%204.10.13.pdf.
8“Putting the Smart by Nature Principles into Practice,” https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/putting-smart-nature-principles-practice.
9Wendell Berry, “Solving for Pattern,” in The Gift of Good Land, (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981).
10Paul Hawken, ed., Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming (New York, Penguin Books, 2017).
11Fred Pearce, “Can ‘Climate-Smart’ Agriculture Help Both Africa and the Planet?” Environmenent360 (Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies 2011), e360.yale.edu/feature/after_durban_can_climate¬smart_farming_help_africa_and_the_planet/2477/.
12Sara J. Scherr and Sajal Sthapit, Mitigating Climate Change through Food and Land Use (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2009), p. 10.

2. Why Is Thinking about Food and Climate Change Challenging?

1National Research Council. A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K–12 Science Education Standards. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. (2012), p. 89.
2“The reason the planet takes several decades to respond to increased CO2 is the thermal inertia of the oceans. Consider a saucepan of water placed on a gas stove. Although the flame has a temperature measured in hundreds of degrees C, the water takes a few minutes to reach boiling point. This simple analogy explains climate lag. The mass of the oceans is around 500 times that of the atmosphere. The time that it takes to warm up is measured in decades. Because of the difficulty in quantifying the rate at which the warm upper layers of the ocean mix with the cooler deeper waters, there is significant variation in estimates of climate lag. A paper by James Hansen and others estimates the time required for 60 percent of global warming to take place in response to increased emissions to be in the range of 25 to 50 years. The mid-point of this is 37.5, which I have rounded to 40 years.” — Alan Marshall, “Climate Change: The 40-year Delay between Cause and Effect,” Skeptical Science, September 22, 2010, https://skepticalscience.com/Climate-Change-The-40-Year-Delay-Between-Cause-and-Effect.html.
3Donella H. Meadows, Thinking in Systems (White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2008), p. 105.
4David W. Orr, Dangerous Years: Climate Change, the Long Emergency, and the Way Forward (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2016), p. 5.
5George Marshall, Don’t Even Think about It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change (New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2014), p. 59.
6Ivo Vegter, “Bloomberg Global Warming Chart Proves Nothing,” Daily Maverick, http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2015-07-06-bloomberg-global-warming-chart-proves-nothing/#.VtTC_EvICXQ.
7Jeanne Merrill, “Natural Systems, Working Lands, and Climate Change,” in Teo Grossman, ed., Climate Leadership: How California’s Climate Policy Could Change the World (San Francisco: Bioneers/Collective Heritage Institute, 2015), p. 31.
8Ian Kahn, “Gradual Climate Changes Could Cause Sudden Impacts,” Climate Central, December 3, 2013, http://www.climatecentral.org/news/gradual-climate-changes-could-cause-sudden-impacts-16792.
9David R. Montgomery and Anne Biklé, The Hidden Half of Nature: The Microbial Roots of Life and Health (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company: 2016), p. 107.
10“A Degree by Degree Explanation of What Happens When the Earth Warms,” http://globalwarming.berrens.nl/globalwarming.htm.
11Fritjof Capra and Pier Luigi Luisi, The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), p. 388.
12Marshall, p. 97.
13Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group I Report: The Scientific Basis, “1.1.2: The Climate System,” https://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg1/040.htm.
14Daniel Goleman, “Foreword,” in Michael K. Stone, Smart by Nature (Healdsburg, CA: Watershed Media. 2009), p. vi.
15Marshall, p. 27.
16“Denying Problems When We Don’t Like the Solutions,” Duke Today, November 6, 2014, https://today.duke.edu/2014/11/solutionaversion.

3. How Can a Systems Perspective Help Our Understanding?

1Fritjof Capra and Pier Luigi Luisi, The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), p. xii.
2Capra and Luisi, p. 80.
3Jonathan Chase, “Does a Warmer World Mean a Greener World? Not Likely!” Plos Biology, June 10, 2015, http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002166. (Commenting on Camilo Mora et al, “Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability” in the same issue).
4Mark Shapiro, The End of Stationarity: Search for the New Normal in the Age of Carbon Shock (White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014, 2016), p. xii.
5Fritjof Capra, “Speaking Nature’s Language: Principles for Sustainability,” in Michael K. Stone and Zenobia Barlow, eds., Ecological Literacy: Educating Our Children for a Sustainable World (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2005), p. 21.
6Donella H. Meadows, Thinking in Systems (White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2008), p. 10.
7Fritjof Capra, “The New Facts of Life,” https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/new-facts-life.
8National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “A Blanket around the Earth,” http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/.
9Meadows, p. 19.
10Meadows, p. 19.
11Joseph Romm, “How Can Global CO2 Levels Soar When Emissions Are Flat?” ThinkProgress, March 21, 2016, http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/03/21/3761903/co2-levels-soar-emissions-flat/.
12Meadows, p. 25.
13Capra and Luisi, p. 349.
14Capra and Luisi p. 354.
15Wikipedia, “Tipping Point,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipping_point_(climatology).
16Wendell Berry, “Solving for Pattern,” in The Gift of Good Land (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981).
17California Climate and Agriculture Network, “Climate Solutions in Agriculture” (2015), http://calclimateag.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Climate-Benefits-of-Agriculture-2015.pdf.
18National Research Council, A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K–12 Science Education Standards. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. (2012), p. 57.
19Charles Fletcher, Climate Change: What the Science Tells Us (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2013), p.108.
20Skeptical Science, “How Reliable Are Climate Models?” https://www.skepticalscience.com/climate-models.htm.

4. What Is the Greenhouse Effect, and Why Does It Matter?

1Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “What Is the Greenhouse Effect?” IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007, Frequently Asked Question 1.3, http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/faq-1-3.html.
2NASA Earth Observatory, “The Atmosphere’s Energy Budget,” http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/EnergyBalance/page6.php.
3Ethan Siegel, “The Hottest Planet in the Solar System,” Barnard-Seyfert Astronomical Society, May 2014, http://www.bsasnashville.com/articles/1405/.
4Marshall Shepherd, “Water Vapor vs Carbon Dioxide: Which ‘Wins’ in Climate Warming?” Forbes Science, June 20, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/marshallshepherd/2016/06/20/water-vapor-vs-carbon-dioxide-which-wins-in-climate-warming/#6b4496fc3b6b.
5Cary Sneider, Richard Golden, and Florence Gaylen, “The Resonant Frequencies of Real Molecules,” in Chapter 2 of Climate Change, (Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009), http://www.globalsystemsscience.org/studentbooks/cc, (no page numbers).
6G. Myhre, G., D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura and H. Zhang, “2013: Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing,” in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)] (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York: 2013), https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_Chapter08_FINAL.pdf, p. 714.
7http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html.
8American Chemical Society, “What Are the Properties of a Greenhouse Gas?” ACS Climate Science Toolkit, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience/greenhousegases/properties.html.
9US Environmental Protection Agency, “Overview of Greenhouse Gases,” https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases.
10Many slightly dated sources list a GWP for methane of 25, the figure from the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. The number from the 2014 Fifth Assessment Report (28 to 34) is based on more recent science.
11See for instance, Joe Romm, “How the EPA and the New York Times Are Getting Methane All Wrong,” ThinkProgress, https://thinkprogress.org/how-the-epa-and-new-york-times-are-getting-methane-all-wrong-eba3397ce9e5#.psbpf8wf4. For the argument for using the 100-year measure, see http://blog.ucsusa.org/doug-boucher/cowspiracy-movie-review.
12GWP and lifetime figures for ozone are not available in the 2013 IPCC report. The lifetime figure here is from Carbon Dioxide Information Center, “Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations,” April 2016, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html.
13Cary Sneider, Richard Golden, and Florence Gaylen, “Ozone,” in Chapter 3 of Climate Change, (Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009), http://www.globalsystemsscience.org/studentbooks/cc, (no page numbers).
14GWP and lifetime figures for ozone are not available in the 2013 IPCC report. Figures and descriptions here are from US Environmental Protection Agency, “Overview of Greenhouse Gases,” https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases.
15American Chemical Society, “It’s the Water Vapor, Not the CO2.” ACS Climate Science Toolkit, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience/climatesciencenarratives/its-water-vapor-not-the-co2.html.
16American Chemical Society, “It’s the Water Vapor, Not the CO2.”

6. Is Dirt Alive?

1“Soil ecology is still in its infancy compared to the far more established fields of soil physics and soil chemistry. Only in recent decades have biologists begun to tease apart the major groups of soil microbes and their functions and relationships as members of subterranean communities.” (David R. Montgomery and Anne Biklé, The Hidden Half of Nature: The Microbial Roots of Life and Health (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016), p. 107.)
2Soil Science Society of America, “Soil Biology,” http://www.soils4teachers.org/biology-life-soil. A publication by the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service, on the other hand, pegs the number of organisms in a teaspoon of soil as more than the number of people on Earth (“Soil Health Nuggets,” https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1101660.pdf).
3Montgomery and Biklé, p. 95.
4A.J. Tugel, A.M. Lewandowski, and D. Happe-vonArb, eds., Soil Biology Primer (Ankeny, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society, 2000), p. 11.
5Montgomery and Biklé, p. 95.
6Montgomery and Biklé, p. 96.
7David R. Montgomery, “Symbioses in the Soil,” Center for Food Safety video, https://soilsolution.org/interviews/.
8Kristin Ohlson, “Dirt First,” Orion magazine, March/April 2016, https://orionmagazine.org/article/dirt-first/.
9Montgomery, “Symbioses in the Soil.”
10Christine Jones, “Liquid Carbon Pathway,” http://www.amazingcarbon.com/PDF/JONES-LiquidCarbonPathway(July08).pdf.
11Kristin Ohlson, The Soil Will Save Us: How Scientists, Farmers, and Foodies Are Healing the Soil to Save the Planet (New York: Rodale Press, 2014), p. 45
12National Research Council, Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, no date), p. 43.
13Montgomery and Biklé, p. 237.
14Whole Kids Foundation with Center for Ecoliteracy, “Starting with Soil,” https://www.ecoliteracy.org/download/starting-soil.

7. Do Food Miles Matter?

1Professor Tim Lang of City University of London coined the term in a 1994 article, “The Food Miles Report—The Dangers of Long-Distance Food Transport,” https://www.sustainweb.org/publications/the_food_miles_report/.
2Sarah DeWeerdt, “Is Local Food Better?” World Watch, July-August 2009, http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6064.
3 Deborah Zabarenko, “Going the Distance: Food Miles and Global Warming,” Common Dreams, October 17, 2007, http://www.commondreams.org/news/2007/10/17/going-distance-food-miles-and-global-warming.
4Rich Pirog et al, “Food, Fuel, and Freeways: An Iowa Perspective on How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, June 2001, http://ngfn.org/resources/ngfn-database/knowledge/food_mil.pdf.
5Holly Hill, “Food Miles: Background and Marketing,” National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2008, https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/viewhtml.php?id=281.
6Hill.
7Wayne Wakeland, Susan Cholette, and Kumar Venkat, “Food Transportation Issues and Reducing Carbon Footprint,” Chapter 9 in Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 211–236.
8Zabarenko.
9Christopher L. Weber and H. Scott Matthews, “Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2008, http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es702969f.
10Hill.
11DeWeerdt.
12Weber and Matthews.

8. Meat and Dairy: Major Problem or Part of the Solution?

1http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/global-warming/.
2Christopher Hyner, “A Leading Cause of Everything: One Industry That Is Destroying Our Planet and Our Ability to Thrive on It,” Stanford Environmental Law Journal, October 25, 2015, https://journals.law.stanford.edu/stanford-environmental-law-journal-elj/blog/leading-cause-everything-one-industry-destroying-our-planet-and-our-ability-thrive-it.
3Andy Vribicek, “The World’s Leading Driver of Climate Change: Animal Agriculture,” New Harvest, January 18, 2015, http://www.new-harvest.org/the_world_s_leading_driver_of_climate_change_animal_agriculture.
4Soil Association, “Soil Carbon and Organic Farming: A Review of the Evidence of Agriculture’s Potential to Combat Climate Change,” http://www.new-harvest.org/the_world_s_leading_driver_of_climate_change_animal_agriculture.
5Judith D. Schwartz, Cows Save the Planet: And Other Improbable Ways of Restoring Soil to Heal the Earth (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2013).
6See, for instance, the Framework that was the basis for the Next Generation Science Standards: “Although any real system smaller than the entire universe interacts with and is dependent on other (external) systems, it is often useful to conceptually isolate a single system for study. To do this, scientists and engineers imagine an artificial boundary between the system in question and everything else…. In the laboratory or even in field research, the extent to which a system under study can be physically isolated or external conditions controlled is an important element of the design of an investigation and interpretation of results.” Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K–12 Science Education Standards, Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012), p. 92.
7American Meat Institute, “Climate Change and Animal Agriculture: The Facts,” https://www.meatinstitute.org/ht/display/ShowPage/id/47385/pid/47385.
8US Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (1990–2015), https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-02/documents/2017_complete_report.pdf.
9Other agriculture sources included rice cultivation, agricultural soil management, liming, urea fertilization, and field burning of agricultural residues.
10“California Regulates Cow Farts,” New York Post, September 21, 2016, http://nypost.com/2016/09/21/it-will-soon-be-illegal-for-cows-to-fart-in-california/.
11US Environmental Protection Agency, “Overview of Greenhouse Gases,” https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases.
12Enteric fermentation and manure management together represent 31.3 percent of methane production, which accounts for 8.2 percent of GHG emissions. Manure management is 4.7 percent of nitrous oxide emissions, which represent 4.4 percent of total GHG emissions.
13Henning Steinfeld et al, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006), ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a0701e/a0701e00.pdf, p. 95.
14Tackling Climate Change through Livestock, (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013), http://www.fao.org/3/8d293990-ea82-5cc7-83c6-8c6f461627de/i3437e.pdf. The note about not comparing figures in the two reports can be found at http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197623/icode/.
15 Paul Hawken, ed., Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming (New York: Penguin Books, 2017), p. 39.
16“Major Cuts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Livestock within Reach,” http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197608/icode/.
17Nicolette Hahn Niman, Defending Beef: The Case for Sustainable Meat Production (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014), p. 41.
18Danielle Nierenberg and Sarah Small, “18 Organizations Working to Improve Livestock Management Practices,” Food Tank, May 4, 2016, http://foodtank.com/news/2016/05/eighteen-organizations-working-to-improve-livestock-management-practices
19Henning Steinfeld et al, p. 118.
20 David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, Food, Energy, and Society, third ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002), p. 363. Cited in Nicolette Hahn Niman, Defending Beef: The Case for Sustainable Meat Production (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014), p. 52.
21Wendy Millet and Kat Taylor, “Climate-smart Ranching: An Interview with Kat Taylor and Wendy Millet,” https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/climate-smart-ranching-interview-kat-taylor-and-wendy-millet.
22http://www.carboncycle.org/about-cci/.
23https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/climatechange/.
24The 2017 Drawdown project rated managed grazing the 19th most promising out of 80 strategies it rated for their potential to avoid the release of or to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Paul Hawken, ed., Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming (New York: Penguin Books, 2017), pp. 72–74.
25 Paige L. Stanley et al, “Impacts of Soil Carbon Sequestration on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Midwest USA Beef Finishing Systems,” Agricultural Systems 162 (2018): 249–258.
26Laura Wellesley, Catherine Happer, and Anthony Froggatt, Changing Climate, Changing Diets: Pathways to Lower Meat Consumption (London: Chatham House, November 2015), p. vii, https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/publications/research/CHHJ3820%20Diet%20and%20climate%20change%2018.11.15_WEB_NEW.pdf.
27Damian Carrington, “Meat Tax Far Less Unpalatable Than Government Thinks, Research Finds,” Guardian, November 23, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/nov/24/meat-tax-far-less-unpalatable-than-government-thinks-research-finds.

9. Chocolate, Peanut Butter, Beer… What’s the Future for My Favorite Foods?

1https://www.climate.gov/news-features/department/climate-and.
2Michon Scott, “Climate & Chocolate,” February 10, 2016, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-chocolate.
3Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, November 2014, http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/.
4Michon Scott, “Climate and Peanut Butter,” November 1, 2012, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-peanut-butter.
5US Global Change Research Program, Global Change Impacts in the United States: 2009 Report, https://nca2009.globalchange.gov/index.html.
6P.V. Vara Prasad et al, “Super-optimal Temperatures Are Detrimental to Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Reproductive Processes and Yield at Both Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide,” Global Change Biology, October 20, 2003, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00708.x/abstract.
7Caitlyn Kennedy, “Climate & Beer,” January 13, 2016, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-beer.
8Brewery Climate Declaration, http://www.ceres.org/declaration/about/climate-declaration-campaigns/brewery.
9Alasdair Bland, “California Brewers Fear Drought Could Leave Bad Taste in Your Beer,” The Salt, February 29, 2014, http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/02/19/279627234/california-brewers-fear-drought-could-leave-bad-taste-in-your-beer.
10Emily Greenhalgh, “Climate & Lobsters,” October 6, 2016, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-lobsters.
11Michon Scott, “Climate & Coffee,” June 19, 2015, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-coffee.
12Natasha Geiling, “Climate Change Is Already Hurting the World’s Most Consumed Coffee Bean,” ThinkProgress, April 30, 2015, https://thinkprogress.org/climate-change-is-already-hurting-the-worlds-most-consumed-coffee-bean-f7fc351839cb#.weehzeu4k.
13Michon Scott, “Climate & Fish Sticks,” July 25, 2012, https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-fish-sticks.
14Greenpeace, “World’s Largest Food Fishery in Danger of Collapse, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/news/dwindling-food-supply-puts-end/.
15Earthjustice, “Restoring the Ocean Food Web [Q & A],” September 2011, http://earthjustice.org/features/ourwork/down-to-earth-andrea-treece-on-west-coast-oceans-work.

10. Climate Justice: What’s Fair?

1Mary Robinson Foundation—Climate Justice, “Principles of Climate Justice,” http://www.mrfcj.org/principles-of-climate-justice/share-benefits-and-burdens-equitably/.
2Brian Tokar, Toward Climate Justice: Perspectives on the Climate Crisis and Social Change (Porsgrunn, Norway: New Compass Press, 2014), p. 74.
3Kenny Bruno, Joshua Karliner, and China Brotsky, “Greenhouse Gangsters vs. Climate Justice,” CorpWatch, November 1, 1999, http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=1048.
4Lloyd’s of London, Feast or Famine: Business and Insurance Implications of Food Safety and Security (2013), p. 9, https://www.lloyds.com/~/media/lloyds/reports/emerging%20risk%20reports/food%20report.pdf.
5Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2009,” http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0854e/i0854e00.htm, p. 26.
6BBC, “The Cost of Food: Facts and Figures,” October 16, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7284196.stm.
7Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change, “Achieving Food Security in the Face of Climate Change,” March, 2012, https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/35589/climate_food_commission-final-mar2012.pdf?sequence=1, p. 16.
8Quoted in Vera Liang Chang, “How Climate Farming Could Reverse Climate Change,” Civil Eats, March 16, 2016, http://civileats.com/2016/03/16/how-carbon-farming-reverse-climate-change-eric-toensmeier/.
9Eric Toensmeier, The Carbon Farming Solution: A Global Toolkit of Perennial Crops and Regenerative Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Food Security (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016), p. 5.
10National Resources Defense Council, “Paris Climate Agreement Explained: Climate Finance,” December 12, 2015, https://www.nrdc.org/experts/han-chen/paris-climate-agreement-explained-climate-finance.
11Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, “Climate Finance Roadmap to US$100 Billion,” http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/themes/climate-change/Pages/climate-finance-roadmap-to-us100-billion.aspx.
12Oxfam, “Reaction: $100 Billion Climate Finance Roadmap Released,” http://www.oxfam.org.uk/media-centre/press-releases/2016/10/reaction-100-billion-dollars-climate-finance-roadmap-released.
13Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change, “Achieving Food Security in the Face of Climate Change,” March 2012, https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/35589/climate_food_commission-final-mar2012.pdf?sequence=1, p. 18.
14See for instance Climate Smart Agriculture Concerns, http://www.climatesmartagconcerns.info//.
15Fred Pearce, “Can ‘Climate-Smart’ Agriculture Help Both Africa and the Planet?” Environmenent360 (Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies 2011), http://e360.yale.edu/feature/after_durban_can_climate_smart_farming_help_africa_and_the_planet/2477/.
16Council on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, “Opportunities to Enhance the Nation’s Resilience to Climate Change,” October 2016, https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/finalresilienceopportunitiesreport.pdf, p. 24.
17Ryan Cho, “Climate Justice in the Classroom: Help High School Students Connect Equity, Economy, Ecology, Society, and Hope,” Green Teacher, Fall, 2015, p. 22.

11. Is Agroecology the Antidote to Industrial Agriculture?

1 See Fritjof Capra and Pier Luigi Luisi, The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
2 See Bill McKibben, The Global Warming Reader (London: Penguin, 2012).
3United Nations, quoted in Chris Arsenault, “Climate Change a ‘Threat Multiplier’ for Farming-dependent States-analysis,” Thomas Reuters Foundation, October 29, 2014, https://www.reuters.com/article/food-climatechange-security/climate-change-a-threat-multiplier-for-farming-dependent-states-analysis-idUSL5N0SN2IV20141029.
4Lester Brown, “Many Countries Reaching Diminishing Returns in Fertilizer Use,” Earth Policy Institute, based on data from the Earth Policy Institute, January 08, 2014, http://www.earth-policy.org/data_highlights/2014/highlights43.
5See, for example, Vandana Shiva, Stolen Harvest: The Highjacking of the Global Food Supply (Cambridge, MA: South End Pres., 2000).
6See, for example, D.S. Rupa, et al, “Reproductive Performance in Population Exposed to Pesticides in Cotton Fields i India,” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Reddi. OS%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=1868815Environ Res. 1991 Aug;55(2):123-8.
7Per Pinstrup-Andersen and Fuzhi Cheng, eds., Case Studies in Food Policy for Developing Countries: Institutions and International Trade Policies (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2009.
8Miguel A. Altieri et al. “The Scaling-up of Agroecology: Spreading the Hope for Food Sovereignty and Resiliency,” Sociedad Cientifica Lationoamericano de Agroecologia (May, 2012), https://foodfirst.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/JA11-The-Scaling-Up-of-Agroecology-Altieri.pdf.
9Miguel A. Altieri, et al.
10See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Summary for Policy Makers” (2014), Figure 2, in “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,” IPCC Working Group II Contribution to AR5, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/IPCC_WG2AR5_SPM_Approved.pdf.
11United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “Livestock’s Role in Deforestation,” http://www.fao.org/agriculture/lead/themes0/deforestation/en.
12United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use,” October 4, 2014. Data available for analysis at http://faostat3.fao.org/download/G1/*/E.
13See Scientific American, “What Causes Ocean ‘Dead Zones’?” September 25, 2012, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-dead-zones/; J. Karstensen et al, “Open Ocean Dead Zones in the Tropical North Atlantic Ocean,” Biogeosciences, 12: 2597–2605, 2015. doi:10.5194/bg-12-2597-2015, https://www.biogeosciences.net/12/2597/2015/bg-12-2597-2015.pdf.
14See United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “FAO Success Stories of Climate-Smart Agriculture,” FAO 2014, p. 143, http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3817e.pdf.
15See Miguel A. Altieri, Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995).
16Studies cited in note 14, p. 14.
17Tim J. LaSalle and Paul Hepperly, “Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming,” Rodale Institute Report, 2008, https://grist.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/rodale_research_paper-07_30_08.pdf.
18J. Pretty, J. Morrison, and R. Hine, “Reducing Food Poverty by Increasing Agricultural Sustainability in the Development Countries,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 95, 2003.
19http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/food-and- farming/11-546-future-of-food-and-farming-report.pdf.
20International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), “Agriculture at a Crossroads,” IAASTD Global Report, (Washington, DC: Island Press), 2009.
21O. De Schutter, “Agroecology and the Right to Food,” Report to the UN Human Rights Council, A/HRC/16/49, 2011, http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/officialreports/20110308_a-hrc-16-49_agroecology_en.pdf.
22See United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “FAO Success Stories of Climate-Smart Agriculture,” FAO 2014, p. 46, http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3817e.pdf
23United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, “FAO Success Stories of Climate-Smart Agriculture.”
24See Eric Holt Gimenez, Campesino a Campesino: Voices from Latin America’s Farmer to Farmer Movement for Sustainable Agriculture (Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 2006).

12. Are We Living in the Country of Waste?

1Some authorities distinguish between “food loss” (food that spills, spoils, or otherwise drops out of the food system during production, post-harvest, and processing) and “food waste” (food fit for consumption that is discarded by retailers or consumers). Others use “waste” to refer to both.
2Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Wastage Footprint: Impacts on Natural Resources, Summary Report, 2013, http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3347e/i3347e.pdf, p. 6; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Causes, and Prevention (Rome: FAO, 2011), p. 17, http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e.pdf. Technically, the FAO refers to “food wastage” as the combination of “food loss”—food that spills, spoils, or otherwise drops out of the food system during production, post-harvest and processing—and “food waste”—food fit for consumption that is discarded by retailers or consumers. For the sake of simplicity, we will use “waste” rather than “wastage” to apply throughout the system.
3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Wastage Footprint: Impacts on Natural Resources, Summary Report, 2013, http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3347e/i3347e.pdf, p. 6; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Global Food Losses and Food Waste—Extent, Causes, and Prevention (Rome: FAO, 2011), pp. 6–8, http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e.pdf
4“Reducing Food Waste Would Mitigate Climate Change, Study Shows,” The Guardian, April 7, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/apr/07/reducing-food-waste-would-mitigate-climate-change-study-shows.
5End Waste Now, “Facts,” http://www.endfoodwastenow.org/index.php/resources/facts.
6Brian Lipinski et al, “Reducing Food Loss and Waste,” Working Paper, Installment 2 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2013), http://worldresourcesreport.org, p. 8.
7Lipinski et al, p. 11.
8Paul Hawken, ed., Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Revers Global Warning (New York: Penguin Books, 2017), p. 42.
9Wendell Berry, “Solving for Pattern,” in The Gift of Good Land, (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981).
10The World Bank, “Missing Food: The Case of Post-Harvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa,” (Washington, DC: World Bank Report No. 60371-AFR, April 2011), http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/Resources/MissingFoods10_web.pdf.
11Elizabeth Royte, “Waste Not Want Not,” National Geographic, March 2016, p. 35.
12http://www.refed.com/?sort=economic-value-per-ton.
13https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300.
14https://champions123.org.
15Foodtank.com/news/2016/07/fighting-food-loss-and-waste.
16US Environmental Protection Agency, “America’s Waste Problem,” April 22, 2016, https://www.epa.gov/sciencematters/americas-food-waste-problem.
17Tristram Stuart, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), p. 288.
18See for instance, https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wasted-food-IP.pdf, http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e.pdf, http://worldresourcesreport.org, http://www.wrap.org.uk/food-waste-reduction.
19ReFED, A Roadmap to Reduce US Food Waste by 20 Percent, http://www.refed.com/downloads/ReFED_Report_2016.pdf.
20Lipinski et al, pp. 14–21.
21Waste and Resources Action Programme, “Extending Product Life to Reduce Food Waste,” http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/reducing-food-waste-extending-product-life.
22ReFED, p. 6.
23Emily Broad Leib, lead author, “The Dating Game: How Confusing Food Date Labels Lead to Food Waste in America,” Harvard Food Law and Policy Clinic and the Natural Resources Defense Council, September 2013, p. 19, https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/dating-game-report.pdf.
24Anglique Chrisafis, “French Law Forbids Food Waste by Supermarkets,” The Guardian, February 4, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/22/france-to-force-big-supermarkets-to-give-away-unsold-food-to-charity.

13. Can Public Policy Help Build Healthy Soil?

1California Department of Food and Agriculture, “California Agricultural Production Statistics, 2015 Crop Year Report,” https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/Statistics/.
2See for instance a California State University, Fresno study that pegs the multiplier at $2.56: Mechel Paggi, “California Agriculture’s Role in the Economy and Water Use Characteristics” (The Center for Agricultural Business, 2011), http://www.fresnostate.edu/jcast/cab/documents/pdf/Appendix-1-Economics-12-7-2.pdf, p. 3.
3California Climate and Agriculture Network, “Climate Solutions in California Agriculture,” http://calclimateag.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Climate-Benefits-of-Agriculture-2015.pdf.
4California Climate and Agriculture Network, “Sweeping Climate Legislation Will Help Grow Crops and Local Economies,” http://calclimateag.org/sweeping-climate-legislation-will-help-grow-crops-and-local-economies/.
5California Climate and Agriculture Network, “Climate Solutions in California Agriculture.”
6Richard E. Howitt et al, “Realistic Payments Could Encourage Farmers to Adopt Practices that Sequester Carbon,” California Agriculture, 63(2), 2009, pp. 91–95.
7“About CalCAN,” http://calclimateag.org/about/.
8Air Resources Board, California Environmental Protection Agency, 2017 Annual Cap-and-Trade Auction Proceeds Report to the Legislature, March 13, 2017, https://arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/auctionproceeds/cci_annual_report_2017.pdf.
9Governor’s Budget Summary—2015–16, “Statewide Issues and Various Departments; California Department of Food and Agriculture,” http://www.ebudget.ca.gov/201516/pdf/BudgetSummary/StatewideIssuesandVariousDepartments.pdf.
10Wendell Berry, “Solving for Pattern,” in The Gift of Good Land, (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981).
11California Senate Bill 859 (2015–16), Public Resources: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Biomass, https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB859.
12Other state programs include the following: (1) dairy methane reduction (CalCAN has advocated for diverse strategies, including anaerobic digesters, pasture-based management, open solar drying and composting of manure, and solid separation technologies); (2) the State Water Efficiency and Enhancement Program (SWEEP) to provide financial assistance to growers for on-farm improvements that reduce GHG emissions and save water; (3) the Sustainable Agricultural Lands Conservation Program (SALCP), which focuses on strategies such as conservation easements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with the loss of agricultural lands to urban/suburban sprawl and other nonagricultural uses.
13Recommendations on the Healthy Soils Initiative, https://soilsolution.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Healthy-Soils-Initiative-Recs-FINAL-Joint-Letter-4-11-16.pdf.
14California Climate and Agriculture Network, “Climate Solutions in California Agriculture.”

14. What Can We Do?

1https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/assessment/?cid=nrcs142p2_053870.
2http://soilcarboncoalition.org/learn.
3“What Is California Thursdays?” Center for Ecoliteracy website,
https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/what-california-thursdays%C2%AE.
4US Department of Agriculture, “Creative Solutions to Ending School Food Waste,” http://blogs.usda.gov/2014/08/26/creative-solutions-to-ending-school-food-waste/.
5US Department of Agriculture, “Reducing Food Waste: What Schools Can Do Today,” https://www.flickr.com/photos/usdagov/15032644782/sizes/l/.
6US Department of Agriculture, “Reducing Food Waste: What Schools Can Do Today.”
7Georgeanne Brennan and Ann M. Evans, Cooking with California Food in K–12 Schools (Berkeley, CA: Learning in the Real World, 2011), https://www.ecoliteracy.org/download/cooking-california-food-k-12-schools.
8Food Bus, http://foodbus.org/about-us/.
9Los Angeles Unified School District, Food Donation Policy, http://achieve.lausd.net/Page/847.
10Sarah Small, “21 Food and Agriculture Organizations Fighting Climate Change,” Food Tank, https://foodtank.com/news/2015/05/twenty-one-food-and-agriculture-organizations-fighting-climate-change/.